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Darryl D’Monte: Does India’s refusal to tackle air pollution amount to genocide?

There were 1.1 million premature deaths in India due to long-term exposure to pollutants. While China registered slightly higher figures, it has now acted against this hazard—the situation in India, in contrast, is getting worse. The highest number of premature deaths globally due to ozone is also in India. Might all this qualify as genocide?

Every breath you take

Air in several Indian cities is rated poorly by international studies. Unlike China, India is not trying to clean up its act

Darryl D’Monte, The Indian Express

If nothing else, a recent graphic in The Guardian, based on data from the journal, Preventive Medicine, and the World Health Organisation (WHO), should awaken the government to the terrifying dangers of air pollution in this country. It shows cities around the globe where the harm caused by cycling or slow jogging — measured in minutes per day — exceeds the benefits of such exercise due to the inhaling of pollutants. These refer to smallest measureable particulates of matter — PM 2.5 that are less than 2.5 micrometers and can bypass the body’s defences; by comparison, particles of 10 micrometers are less than the width of a human hair.

The world map —the graphic — shows India with a crown of such polluted cities straddling the north of the country and extending into Pakistan and Afghanistan, forming the biggest concentration of such danger spots in the entire world. Gwalior and Allahabad top the list (along with Zabol in Iran) where more than 30 minutes of cycling or slow jogging in a day is counterproductive. Patna and Raipur figure in the next band where the tipping point is 45 minutes, while in Delhi — listed as the world’s worst polluted city by the WHO in 2014 — Ludhiana and Kanpur cycling or slow jogging becomes counter-productive after 60 minutes. This means that despite living in the diabetes capital of the world and facing rising obesity levels, Indians will not be able to keep fit by any brisk exercise above these time limits. The American school in Delhi listed only five days in the four months after October 2015 that were safe for children to play in the open.

Obviously, walking is also hazardous, though for a longer time limit. While the journal and WHO address the middle class all over the world, the poor in these Indian cities have no alternative but to walk or cycle to work. A 2008 study by the Institute of Urban Transport (India) estimated that there were a million trips by cycle every day in Delhi. This data comes just before alarm bells rang with the State of Global Air 2017 report by two US-based institutes which shows that there were 1.1 million premature deaths in India due to long-term exposure to PM 2.5 in 2015. Since 2010, India and Bangladesh have recorded the highest such levels in the world. While China registered slightly higher figures, it has now acted against this hazard — the situation in India, in contrast, is getting worse. China has registered a 17 per cent increase in these deaths since 1990, while the increase is nearly 50 per cent in India. The highest number of premature deaths globally due to ozone is also in India. Might all this qualify as genocide?

To complete the toxic trio of such studies, new research in the journal Environment International shows that pre-term babies (born less than 37 weeks of gestation) face the risk of death or physical or neurological disabilities due to exposure to PM 2.5, among other factors. However, such exposure can also affect babies in the womb. In 2010, as many as 2.7 million pre-term births in the world — 18 per cent of the total — were associated with this fine particulate matter, which can lodge deep in a mother’s lungs. India alone contributed 1 million such pollution-related births, twice that in China.

A recent e-book on air pollution titled Choked by Pallavi Aiyar, who lived in Beijing before the 2008 Olympics, details the measures China took to clean up its act. Like Delhi, Beijing was afflicted by the burgeoning number of cars and rampant construction; like Delhi, it was hit by dust storms (from the Gobi desert, as against the Thar) and is similarly landlocked. Unlike Delhi’s environs, it didn’t face the pollution caused by the burning of agricultural waste. Half the world’s concrete and a third of its steel was used for the games. Construction materials and debris transported in open trucks or dumped indiscriminately contributed the bulk of coarser particles.

Stung by international media criticism, which posed a threat to the games, the government swung into action. It began to enforce the measurement of “blue sky days” in a year, which rose from 241 in 2006 to 274 two years later. However, international researchers alleged that some monitoring stations had shifted to cleaner areas to fudge the figures — always a problem with China’s statistics. Despite this, blue skies were a visible proof of the clean-up.

China spent $17 billion on improving its capital’s environment from 2001, when it won the Games bid, to 2008. On air pollution alone, it spent $557 million. The number of buses doubled, while 50,000 old taxis and 10,000 old buses were scrapped and replaced with new models. It introduced 4,000 CNG buses — something that Delhi did in 1998. Over 200 polluting industries were shifted out — due to the lack of democratic safeguards, China doesn’t face the prospect of protracted law suits. There was a fourfold increase in use of natural gas. Nevertheless, Beijing’s GDP rose four times between 2000 and 2007 with large-scale industrialisation and urbanisation proceeding “at a breakneck speed”, writes Aiyar.

China cracked down on cars that didn’t meet emission standards by preventing them from entering the city. The decline in sulphur dioxide levels was the most dramatic achievement. In a decade from 1998, it “leapfrogged” – to employ the exhortatory title of a tome by the Centre for Science and Environment in Delhi – from Euro I to Euro IV standards. Euro IV had gasoline with 50 parts per million (ppm) sulphur, as compared to 800 ppm under Euro I.

By 2012, Beijing restricted the ownership of cars to those who didn’t possess one and bidders had to enter a monthly lottery. Notably, something which Delhi’s mandarins should note, it limited the use of cars by government officials. By 2014, it had cut the number of new license plates by 37 per cent. In 2013, Beijing announced that it would spend a total of $163 billion in five years on tackling pollution. Across China, PM 2.5 levels fell by 37 per cent between 2010 and 2015.

What will it take Delhi to gets its act together to stop being the world’s air pollution pariah? Perhaps international criticism by environmental experts and the media like the controversy over The New York Times correspondent who wrote he was leaving the country for fear of worsening his young son’s asthma. Successive governments have turned a blind eye not only to urban air pollution but also to indoor contamination caused by smoky chulhas. Years ago, Kirk Smith, an American expert now at the University of California at Berkeley, loosely compared such exposure to the equivalent of inhaling carcinogens from two packs of cigarettes a day. He is now researching how LPG can reduce the health risks faced by pregnant women while cooking in India, as well as the contribution of households to ambient air pollution in the country.

The writer is Chairman Emeritus, Forum of Environmental Journalists in India

Tipping point: revealing the cities where exercise does more harm than good
Nick Van Mead, The Guardian
Who says exercise is always good for you? Cycling to work in certain highly polluted cities could be more dangerous to your health than not doing it at all, according to researchers. In cities such as Allahabad in India, or Zabol in Iran, the long-term damage from inhaling fine particulates could outweigh the usual health gains of cycling after just 30 minutes. In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, this tipping point happens after just 45 minutes a day cycling along busy roads. In Delhi or the Chinese city of Xingtai, meanwhile, residents pass what the researchers call the “breakeven point” after an hour. Other exercise with the same intensity as cycling – such as slow jogging – would have the same effect.

How bad is Delhi’s air? We strapped a monitor to a rickshaw to find out
The Guardian
Suresh Kumar Sharma is an auto-rickshaw driver in Delhi, a city with some of the world’s dirtiest air – and where many locals don’t know how unhealthy it is. We monitored the dangerous PM2.5 particles surrounding Suresh’s rickshaw for 12 hours, then had his lungs tested: ‘I was shocked’

Delhi’s deadly dust: how construction sites are choking the city
Michael Safi, The Guardian
In a country largely under construction – by some rough projections, around 70% of the buildings that will exist in India’s cities by 2030 are yet to be built – controlling the dust produced by roads and worksites is an important, but largely neglected, part of clearing Delhi’s air, according to environmental groups.

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2 Responses “Darryl D’Monte: Does India’s refusal to tackle air pollution amount to genocide?”

  1. Dr. S. Jeevananda Reddy
    27th February 2017 at 1:31 pm

    Is pollution causing human genocide?

    Dr. S. Jeevananda Reddy
    Formerly Chief Technical Advisor – WMO/UN & Expert-FAO/UN

    Recently there is spurt in poor quality reports on the lines of global warming relating to pollution. Down To Earth, a magazine published by Centre for Science and Environment [CSE] on 14th February 2017 presented an article “Dirty Air dooms Indians to early death”. Darryl D’Monte in his assessment report “Does India’s refusal to tackle air pollution amount to genocide?”, — [www.ecologise.in/2017/02/24/Darryl-dmonte-every-breath-take/] –, state that there were 1.1 million premature deaths in India due to long-term exposure to pollutions. The highest number of premature deaths globally due to ozone is also in India”.
    Down To Earth report presented year-wise people dying early due to PM2.5 [RSPM] and ground level ozone pollution for India as:

    Year: 1990/1995/2000/2005/2010/2015
    PM2.5 [lakhs]: 73.7/ 79.5/ 85.7/ 89.6/ 95.7/109.0
    Ozone [Thousands]: 43.5/ 54.4/ 66.8/ 73.0/ 88.1/107.8

    These are a falsified alarms created not based on facts but based on fiction. Ozone is not directly emitted but is formed through reaction of variety of gases like NOx, VOC & CO under the influence of sunlight and temperature.
    In twin cities of Hyderabad, with the fuel and vehicle technology the pollution levels have come down drastically by 2003-05 – prior to 1998 one vehicle used to produce pollution equivalent to 10 vehicles of after 2000. SO2 reduced from 18.6 in 1998 to 1.9 in 2003 and reached to 5.0 in 2006; the same in the case of NOx are 42.5 (2000), 20.1 & 25.5; in the case of RSPM are 128 (1999). 73 (2004), 99 (2006); in the case of TSPM are 287, 216 (2004), 261. RSPM, TSPM, NOx are very high at Abids, Punjagutta, Paradise & Charminar with low dispersion capacity and very low at Zoo Park & KBR Park with good dispersion capacity of the ambient air. These changes are not reflected in the people dying early due to PM2.5 [RSPM] and ground level ozone but simply presented a monotonic increase irrespective of pollution level. Though the data refers to all India and pollution change in Hyderabad, the technology impact across the country is the same.
    Darryl report also narrates a story “The New York Times, correspondent who wrote he was leaving the country for fear of worsening his young son’s Asthma. Successive governments have turned a blind eye not only to urban air pollution but also to indoor contamination caused by smoky chullas”.
    Let me present a case of mine. When I was with DDGC/I&D Division of IMD/Pune in 1972, Parliament raised an issue on the accuracy of normal onset date of southwest monsoon in Delhi. To respond this I collected the historical sub-division-wise onset dates from old records. This act gifted me with Bronchitis Asthma. Dr. Grant gave me high potency medicine and this lead the use of Adrenalin Injection daily. In 1976 June I joined ICRISAT in Hyderabad. It gave me an opportunity to take fish medicine in 1977 and got it cured. Also, Pune-Mumbai zone is famous for Allergic Asthma due to pollen from a weed that entered India with PL-480 Wheat from Mexico, known as Perthanium Weed [Congress Grass].
    Air pollution rarely causes deaths but keeps the patient lifelong on drug and thus major share of the earnings go to health care. These are helping bulk drug manufacturing industry, health care network and they in turn causing more pollution, a vicious circle. Deaths are caused by several factors and so far nobody has data on cause-wise death since 1990 or even from 2000. Average human life showed a steady raise. People quote figures from air. Chest Hospital reported in and out patients but not deaths.

    Dr. S. Jeevananda Reddy

  2. Dr. S. Jeevananda Reddy
    22nd August 2019 at 9:47 pm

    Misnomer on Climate Change

    Dr. S. Jeevananda Reddy

    Now a day, every day we find reports on the “impact of climate change” in media. Unfortunately, man on the street to reputed Scientific Institutions using the word climate change as an adjective or as de-facto global warming. People are shy of using the word “global warming”. IPCC & UNFCCC clearly defined the word “climate change” but rarely followed this. IPCC published several reports. I presented my observations on IPCC Synthesis Report [AR5] released on 1st November 2014 and as well “IPCC’S WG-II AR5 with reference to India” – my observations were posted on line by several websites on December 7, 2013 and later. The presentation in Synthesis Report of AR5 is quite different from the previous two reports of AR5. This report was filled with ambiguous statements. However, to avoid the confusion particularly in relation to the impact aspects instead of using the generalized word climate change, used the specific part of climate change, namely global warming, ecological changes, natural variability, etc. This gave clarity to public on the issue of global warming. However, this was not followed while presenting IPPC’s 7th August 2019 report on “Climate Change and Land”. The following are my comments on this report submitted through an open letter [given below]:

    Open Letter to IPCC/UNFCCC/WMO/UN
    Sub: Comments on IPCC’s 7th August 2019 Report on “Climate Change and Land”
    From: Dr. S. Jeevananda Reddy Hyderabad/TS/India/11-8-2019
    Under “Summary for Policy makers”, the report states that “This report addresses greenhouse (GHG) fluxes in land-based ecosystem, land use and sustainable land management in relation to climate change adaptation and mitigation, desertification, land degradation and food security”. That is, tried to link all these to global warming/GHG. However, all these factors are localized and regionalized but not globalized. Mississippi River in USA receives heavy doses of chemical wastes from farm field runoffs and created Gulf of Mexico a dead zone, etc., etc. Destruction of nature to meet human greed, the “same extreme weather event’s” impact is amplified” multi-fold. Decades back a WMO report brought out some such facts.
    As usual, this is one another “Time-pass Report – Wasting Public Money” from IPCC a UN body. Most of the descriptions in the report are of hypothetical in nature derived from the Air with the pre-conceived notions and are not based on physics/Science. Unfortunately, they even did not take note of what they said in their earlier reports such as AR4 & AR5 in terms of definition of “climate change”, climate system, climate sensitivity factor, etc.
    The main fallacy in declaring an event as unusual is based on the past few years’ records. The meteorological records started only around 1850s and that too at fewer locations. With the progression of time they increased in number covering wider space. Prior to 1850 only some documents-folklores narrated unusual weather events but they are rarely available to public to consult like data. The modern politicians-UN agencies-some scientific groups-NGO groups have been attributing the unusual weather events to global warming for the lapses committed by the government bodies-public; and the media gives them hype (Reddy, 2018a& b). In all the unusual weather events they used invariably the word “climate change” but while discussing the events they talk of impact of “temperature”, which refers indirectly to “global warming, a component of climate change. However, such people avoid using the word global warming.
    “We cannot expect the Paris Agreement to solve the crisis associated with these extreme weather events. The way was to minimize their impact is through the mechanism in which they occur by quantifying the agro-climate of the region” – Ecologise.in, 6th June 2016; “Precautionary measure for natural calamities: A letter to the Prime Minister” – such analysis was carried out for few countries and the summaries were included in Reddy (1993, 2019a)
    The traditional agriculture was soil and climate driven farming systems that encompasses the animal husbandry (Reddy, 2019b). It provided socio-economic, food and nutrient security with the healthy food. Those were the “Golden Days” in the history of farming. Traditionally farmers adapted to this based on their forefathers hundreds of years of experiences. Now, quality milk & Aqua products have become rare commodities. To achieve food security, we need sustainable agriculture system under variable soil and climate conditions wherein the soil is static and the climate is dynamic (Reddy, 1993 & 2019a). Climate is beyond human control and thus needs to adapt to it. Climate is always changing through the natural cycles. What we are experiencing now is part of this system only. The two main climatic parameters that play vital role in agriculture are temperature and precipitation. Temperature presents high seasonal and annual variations. Table presents the Hyderabad Temperature Extremes from climate normal book. The range shows more than 10 oC. At all India level 2002 & 2009 were drought years. This resulted raise in temperature (0.7 & 0.9 oC).
    Month Temperature (oC)
    Tw Tmax Tmin Thm Tlm Th Tl
    Highest 23.7 38.7 26.2 42.4 22.5 44.4 19.4
    Lowest 17.2 27.8 13.4 30.6 09.9 33.3 06.1
    Range 06.5 10.9 12.8 11.8 12.6 11.1 13.3
    Tw = mean afternoon wet bulb, Tmax = mean maximum, Tmin = mean minimum, Thm = highest mean, Tlm = lowest mean, Th = highest in a day, Tl = lowest in a day,
    Agriculture was/is adapted to such variations in temperatures. However, in the last two decades groups are polluting agriculture research under the disguise of global warming, a component of climate change (Reddy, 2016). Moisture is the limiting factor in tropical warm countries where most of the developing countries are located. Moisture is expressed by rainfall/snowfall.
    The term “climate change” was defined by IPCC & UNFCCC. However, at local and regional levels they are affected by Climate Systems & General Circulation Patterns (Reddy, 2016). These are part of natural variability. Also, with the population growth and their action on nature are adding new twists to climate change. This is termed as human induced trend. Trend is a permanent feature. In rainfall, only natural variability is present. However, in temperature both trend and natural variability are present. Let us see these in brief [see references at the end].
    The carbon dioxide levels in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) are far lower than those in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). It is also true with country to country. Same is the case with the temperature. That means it is not global phenomenon but it is a regional phenomenon and averaged. We must not forget the fact that wild animal dominated the world before industrial revolution. Domesticated animal replaced the wild animal population globally. Methane gas has short life while carbon dioxide (CO2) has long life in the atmosphere. So, methane gas contribution to greenhouse gases is not an important component. Same is the case with other air pollutants that have very short life but have direct impact on life forms on the Land and in the Oceans (Reddy, 2013 & 2014). The CO2 levels in the atmosphere are linearly related to population. By bringing down the population growth drastically, CO2 will also comedown drastically.
    IPCC report showed 1.53 oC changes for land. This cannot be called as global warming but it is only an average. Also, it is contaminated by urban-heat-island effect factor. — And 0.87 oC for land + ocean from 1850-1900 to 2006-2015. The second fallacy is, all those presented in 1st para at global level has no meaning and on the contrary they should be calculated those parameters at local, regional, national and thus global level instead of harping on global warming a non-existed parameter. The temperature anomaly estimates have large limitations. For example:
    (1) The network of met stations has been increased with the time and with the satellite era they have been gradually coming down on land surface. Though oceans occupy two-thirds of globe, the network is dismal low and accuracy is big question. Also, there is no balance between urban [densely distributed over smaller area] and rural [sparsely distributed over the large area] met network. This makes imbalance contribution to global anomaly by overemphasizing the urban heat island component and underemphasizing the rural cold island component; and thus as a result positive contributions to average.
    [2] According IPCC, 1951 was the starting year of global warming; and in human impact component [trend] more than half is contributed by greenhouse effect and less than half by non-greenhouse effect. So, the changes in temperature presented above are not global warming. If we assume that in more than half, 50% is due to global warming, then they are: 0.765 oC & 0.435 oC.
    [3] Reddy (2008) presented the natural variability and trend using the data series of 1880 to 2010. The moving average suggested the natural variability follows the 60-year cycle, varies between -0.3 and +0.3 oC & the trend showed 0.6 oC/Century. Thus the global warming is 0.6 x 0.5 = 0.3 oC/Century. Then from 1951 to 2100 it is 0.45 oC. This is for linear trend. IPCC presented climate sensitivity factor gradually coming down. That means it follows the non-linearly, gradually coming down in entire greenhouse effect as the energy emitted by the Sun is constant with natural variability associated with the Sunspot cycle; and net radiation from the ground followed the same (Reddy, et al., published this in 1977)). Also, night temperatures are showing higher rise over the day temperatures, which is primarily associated with the urban heat-island effect. So, urban factor is contributing to higher rise in average land temperatures. This would have countered by the rural factor but this is missing.
    [4] By taking all these factors in to account, we can safely say that practically there is no global warming – original satellite data supported this but this was removed from the internet (Reddy, 2008). However, urban heat island effect is going up and up with bulging of unplanned urban areas. Rise in temperature is not confined to ground level but also to higher layers of the atmosphere depending up on the vertical structure [distribution/density]. This is affecting power consumption [more CO2 — not a pollution; we inhale air, use oxygen and release CO2 — is released]. This is the major issue to be talked by governments on priority basis. Now Indian Government made Ladak as UT and this may lead to unplanned/reckless growth, which will severely change the climate and destruction of natural resources [water bodies/rainfall/snowfall], etc. Thus, what IPCC said in 1st para may be possible in Ladak in near future due to human greed but not due to GHG.
    [5] Heat & Cold waves are part of natural system. In India, they are associated with Western Disturbances, a general circulation pattern, in the northwest India. Reddy & Rao published in 1978 how the heat or cold waves move over different parts of India. Even today there is no change. Unfortunately UN agencies don’t care to look in to such systems as their agenda of climate change is different. Under the general circulation pattern, low pressure system in West Bengal creates dry conditions in Hyderabad.
    IPCC reported that Himalayan Glaciers will melt by 2035 and Al Gore reported that Greenland ice will melt in five years. On our questioning on the veracity of such conclusions, IPCC & Al Gore waited for Nobel Prize and withdrew their conclusions but did not return the Nobel Prize money. After returning from COP21 Paris summit on climate change in 2015 the environment minister informed to the Indian Parliament that 86.6% of Himalayan Glaciers are stable out of 2181.
    If sea levels are rising, why Al Gore acquired Beach House? That means, really speaking there is no sea level rise associated with global warming; but in some areas these are associated with sinking of coastal zones due to extraction of water, oil & gas [southern parts of USA] and destruction of coastal protective walls [mangrove forests], etc. (Reddy, 2016 & 2018a).
    [6] WMO Press note on extreme weather events on the occasion of WMO Day (23-3-2014) it was observed linking global warming to droughts in SH nations. I sent a reply saying they are part of natural variability in rainfall and has nothing to do with global warming [which is non-existing] and suggested to refer my book available in WMO Library for verification on facts.
    In rainfall, there is no trend but there is shift associated with changes in localized or regionalised Climate System. WMO in 1966 brought out a manual on climate change. This manual presented methods to separate natural variability from human induced trend. It also presented methods to characterize the cyclic nature in rainfall data series. This manual was prepared by eminent meteorologists from met departments around the globe.
    In Indian Parliament a question was asked on Delhi normal date of onset of monsoon. We were assigned to respond on this. In that connection, I collected the dates of onset and withdrawal for all met sub-divisions in India from DWR, WWR, & MWR – no data was available in electronic systems. I worked out a method for forecasting the onset of SWM [linking with Stratosphere winds over Singapore]. As part of it, time series of onset dates for Kerala were platted. The 10-year moving average showed a 52 year cyclic pattern; I published this in 1977. Same was also seen in Fortaleza rainfall in northeast Brazil in the Southern Hemisphere around the same latitude; I published this in 1984. I studied the rainfall of Mahalapye in Botswana in 1981; also studied the data series of Mozambique and Ethiopia {published in 1986 & 1990). These are presented by Reddy (1993 & 2019a). They all showed systematic rhythmic variations. Recently there was a hue- &- cry on drought conditions in Cape Town in South Africa and wet conditions [Idai Cyclone] in Beira in Mozambique. I predicted them and published in 1986 – for Beira with the average rainfall of 1480 mm: the wet 2012 to 2038 with 2023-2027 dry periods; and for Durban with the average rainfall of 1050 mm: the dry 2010-2042 with 2024-2028 wet periods.
    In 2000 in a book I presented the cyclic nature of Indian rainfall and Andhra Pradesh Rainfall. Now in all India annual rainfall started below the average 30 year part of the 60-year cycle. These were linked to water availability in Godavari River, etc. (Reddy, 2019a, b & c). Andhra Pradesh state annual rainfall presented 132 year cycle. One full cycle completed and the second cycle started in 2001 starting with below the average 66 year cycle part. In this part more drought years are possible – it is already experienced by the states. Krishna River water followed this pattern. However, SWM and NEM rainfall series showed 56 year cycle but in opposite direction [similar to Atlantic and Pacific Ocean temperature 60 year cycle]. The cyclonic activity in Bay of Bengal showed similar to SWM 56-year cycle. At local level in Kurnool, the analysis showed drought in 45% of the years. This followed the SWM rainfall pattern of 56 years cycle and thus during below the average period the drought condition will be in 70% of the years and in the above the average period, it is only 30% of the years.
    These play vital role to achieve sustainability – however scientists-institutions are misleading governments on rainfall and water availability issues — in agriculture and food security issues (Reddy, 2019b & 2019c). However, both quantity and quality of foods are important both on land and in water/oceans. The quality is affected by pollution (Reddy, 2013, 2014 & 2019b & c). On request submitted my suggestions in this regard to “Food Security and Nutrition: Building a global narrative towards 2030”, From 3 December 2018 to 28 January 2019, http://www.fao.org/fsnforum/cfs-hlpe/discussions/global_FSN_narrative, on online. My suggestion is 13th in the list [www.fao.org/fsmforum]. One of the ten points under this is:
    How and why do diets change?
    “One is associated with the food production through farming systems practices in agriculture and the other is non-agriculture system – animal meet and sea food. Under traditional agriculture farmers used to produce nutrient rich food including milk. With the chemical input agriculture technology this is drastically modified and now people get poor quality polluted diet including adulterated food. Even the sea/river/pond foods are contaminated with pollution. Cereals and pulses were important food components under traditional system. Now vegetables are consumed more but they are contaminated with polluted water use in producing them.”
    In 1985 presented and published the analysis results of rainfall data of India, Upper Volta [Burkina Faso], Senegal & North Western Australia — included water balance simulations to North Western Australian stations [Pine Creek, Argyle Downs, Derby, Atherton, Mt Surprise, Woodstock, Clermont, Marlborough, Mitchell] and Niger stations [Niamey Ville & Maradi]. This study brought out the fact why commercial agriculture failed in the North Western Australia. Also a bulletin was brought out in 1981 presenting the rainfall condition in West Africa [Senegal, Mali, Upper Volta, Niger and Tchad]. In all these there was no GHG impact.
    Reddy, S.J., 1993: ‘Agroclimatic/Agrometeorological Techniques: As applicable to Dry-land Agriculture in Developing Countries’, (JCT, Secunderabad, India), 205p – Book Review appeared in Agric. For. Meteorol., 67, pp. 325-327 (1994) — http://www.scribd.com/.Google Books.
    Reddy, S.J., 2008: “Climate Change: Myths & Realities”, http://www.scribd.com/Google Books, 205p.
    Reddy, S.J., 2013: “Impacts of pollution on environment: Myths & Realities!!”, Compendium, Platinum Jubilee Celebrations of Andhra Pradesh State Centre (1938-2013), The Institute of Engineers (India), 9-16pp.
    Reddy, S.J., 2014. Water-logging and water productivity in Agriculture. Proc. 4th International Conference on ‘Hydrology and Watershed Management [ICHWAM-2014], Vol. II, pp. 683-692.
    Reddy, S.J., 2016. Climate Change and its Impacts: Ground Realities. BS Publications, Hyderabad, India, 276p.
    Reddy, S.J., 2018a. Role of Climate Change on Recent Weather Disasters. Acta Scientific Agriculture 2.4: 22-29.
    Reddy, S.J., 2018b. Impact of “Climate Change & Human Interference” on Water Resources Availability in India. Presented at AICE’18 Total Water Solutions held at Hyderabad on 16-17th November 2018 by American Water Association [AWWA].
    Reddy, S.J., 2019a: ‘Agroclimatic/Agrometeorological Techniques: As applicable to Dry-land Agriculture in Developing Countries [2nd Edition]’, “Brillion Publishing”, New Delhi, 372p.
    Reddy, S.J., 2019b: “Workable Green Revolution: Agriculture in the perspective of Climate Change”, Brillion Publishing, New Delhi, 221p (2019).
    Reddy, S.J., 2019c: “Water Resources Availability in India”, Brillion Publishing, New Delhi, 224p.

    Dr. S. Jeevananda Reddy
    Chief Technical Advisor – WMO/UN & Expert – FAO/UN
    Fellow, Telangana Academy of Sciences
    Convenor Forum for a Sustainable Environment

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